The Bohemian Switzerland National Park
was declared on 1 January 2000. 97% of its area is covered with forests. The National Park Office is based in the Town of Krásná Lípa. The main object of protection in the Bohemian Switzerland National Park is a unique geomorphology of the rock city and the related diversity of plant and animal species. The landscape is characterized by numerous ledges, canyons, sandstone towers and table rocks that loom high above an endless sea of forests. Perceptive visitors will be literally amazed by them all. The landscape of the Bohemian chalkstone plate is enriched by Tertiary volcanic formations dominated by the highest peak of the Bohemian Switzerland National Park Růžovský vrch (619 m, national nature preserve) with virgin forest ecosystems. The Elbe Canyon (Kaňon Labe) in Hřensko, on the contrary, is the lowest point of the Czech Republic (114 m above sea level). Original natural forests have been preserved on inaccessible cliffs; rare animals species here include the garden dormouse, peregrine falcon, black stork, lynx, or insect species unknown elsewhere; rare vascular plants include the typical marsh tea, crowberry, twoflower violetor claspleaf twistedtalk. Also characteristic is an abundant occurrence of fernwort, with the typical species being the deer fern. Non-vascular plants include a number of moss plants and rare fungi. A typical phenomenon here is climatic inversion, during which cold air streams down to the bottom of the gorges and the altitudinal vegetation zones are reversed. As a consequence, subalpine and alpine animal and plant species occur at altitudes of around 150 metres. The unusual harmony of nature is complemented by the numerous structures of vernacular architecture consisting of timbered and semi-timbered houses situated in the villages along the perimeter of the National Park.